Yes, you can use adaptive release settings in Canvas. In Modules, you would use requirements, prerequisites, and/or "lock" the module depending on the availability settings you would like related to the way in which students progress through your course.
To use adaptive release settings for individual items, such as Quizzes, you may wish to use Differentiated Assignments. Differentiated Assignments in Canvas allow you to create Assignments, Graded Discussions, and Quizzes for individual students, sections, or all students in your courses. Assignments and Graded Discussions can also be differentiated for student groups. Creating assignments for various users creates varied due dates. Availability date functionality is still available for each assignment.